Account Receivable Explained | Types, (A/R days) & Outsourcing

Account Receivable Explained Types, (AR days) & Outsourcing

What is the Meaning of Account Receivable?

In the world of finance and accounting, accounts receivable is a term that holds significant importance. It refers to the outstanding balances owed to a business by its customers or clients for goods or services provided on credit. In simpler terms, accounts receivable represents the money that a company is entitled to receive from its customers.

The concept of accounts receivable is a fundamental aspect of managing a business’s cash flow. It directly impacts a company’s working capital, liquidity, and overall financial health. Understanding the meaning, importance, and best practices associated with accounts receivable is crucial for businesses of all sizes and industries.

The accounts receivable process begins with the issuance of an invoice or a bill to the customer, detailing the amount owed, payment terms, and any applicable discounts or penalties. Once the invoice is sent, the amount becomes an account receivable until it is paid in full by the customer. Companies often maintain an accounts receivable ledger to track and manage the balances owed by each customer.

Importance of Accounts Receivable 

Accounts receivable play a vital role in the financial management of a business. Here are some key reasons why accounts receivable is important:

  1. Cash Flow Management: Accounts receivable is a significant component of a company’s cash flow. It represents funds that are expected to be collected soon, which helps ensure a steady inflow of cash to meet operational expenses, pay suppliers, and invest in business growth. Efficient management of accounts receivable ensures a healthy cash flow position.
  2. Revenue Recognition: Accounts receivable is directly tied to revenue recognition. When goods or services are sold on credit, the revenue is recognised at the time of the sale, even if the payment is yet to be received. Properly tracking and managing accounts receivable enables accurate revenue recognition, which is crucial for financial reporting and analysis.
  3. Working Capital Management: Effective management of accounts receivable helps optimise working capital, which is the funds available for day-to-day operations. By ensuring the timely collection of outstanding balances, businesses can reduce the need for external financing and improve their liquidity position.
  4. Customer Relationships: Accounts receivable management is closely linked to maintaining positive customer relationships. Prompt and accurate invoicing, clear communication of payment terms, and proactive follow-up on overdue payments contribute to customer satisfaction and loyalty. A streamlined accounts receivable process enhances the overall customer experience.
  5. Risk Management: Monitoring accounts receivable allows businesses to identify potential credit risks and take appropriate measures to mitigate them. By analysing customer payment patterns and creditworthiness, businesses can make informed decisions about extending credit limits, implementing credit controls, or even pursuing legal action for non-payment.

Best Practices for Managing Accounts Receivable

To effectively manage accounts receivable and optimise cash flow, businesses should adopt several best practices:

  1. Clear and Concise Invoicing: Ensure that invoices are accurate and clear, and provide all the necessary information, including the billing address, itemised charges, payment terms, and due date. Utilise professional invoice templates and consider electronic invoicing for faster delivery and convenience.
  2. Establish Credit Policies: Define clear credit policies and procedures that promote responsible credit practices. Establish criteria for extending credit to customers, such as credit checks, credit limits, and payment terms. Communicate these policies to customers and ensure they are consistently applied.
  1. Timely and Regular Follow-up: Implement a system to track and follow up on outstanding invoices. Send reminders and payment notifications to customers before the due date and promptly follow up on overdue payments. Maintain open lines of communication with customers to address any payment issues or concerns.
  2. Offer Convenient Payment Options: Provide customers with various payment options to make it easy for them to settle their invoices. Accept multiple payment methods, such as credit cards, electronic funds transfer, and online payment platforms. Consider implementing automated recurring billing for recurring customers to streamline the payment process.
  3. Monitor and Analyse Accounts Receivable: Regularly monitor the ageing of accounts receivable to identify overdue payments and potential collection issues. Generate reports and perform analysis to gain insights into payment trends, customer behaviour, and overall accounts receivable performance. This information can help in making informed decisions and implementing strategies to improve collections.
  4. Strengthen the Collections Process: Establish clear policies and procedures for handling collections, including escalation procedures for delinquent accounts. Implement a systematic approach to collecting outstanding payments, which may involve sending collection letters, making phone calls, or engaging a collection agency if necessary. Balance the need to collect payments with maintaining positive customer relationships.
  5. Collaborate with Sales and Customer Service: Foster collaboration between the accounts receivable department, sales teams, and customer service representatives. Encourage open communication and sharing of information to address any billing or payment issues promptly. Sales and customer service teams can provide valuable insights and support in resolving customer disputes and improving the overall accounts receivable process.
  6. Utilise Technology and Automation: Leverage technology and accounting software to streamline accounts receivable processes. Automated reminders, electronic invoicing, and online payment portals can reduce manual tasks, improve accuracy, and expedite the collection process. Invest in a robust accounts receivable management system that allows for efficient tracking, reporting, and analysis of customer balances.
  7. Train and Develop Staff: Provide training and ongoing development opportunities for accounts receivable staff. Equip them with the necessary skills and knowledge to effectively manage customer relationships, handle collections, and use accounting software. Foster a customer-centric mindset to ensure staff members understand the importance of balancing collection efforts with maintaining positive customer experiences.
  8. Continuous Improvement: Regularly evaluate and refine your accounts receivable processes to identify areas for improvement. Seek feedback from customers, analyse performance metrics, and stay updated on industry best practices. Implement changes and strategies to optimise the accounts receivable function and enhance cash flow management.

What are the 4 Types of Account Receivable?

When analysing accounts receivable, it is helpful to understand the different types that can exist within this category. 

  1. Trade Accounts Receivable

Trade accounts receivable is the most common type and refers to the amounts owed by customers for products or services provided as part of the company’s core business operations. These receivables arise from credit sales, where customers are allowed to pay at a later date, usually within 30 to 90 days. Trade accounts receivable are typically short-term in nature and form a significant portion of a company’s working capital.

Managing trade accounts receivable efficiently is vital for maintaining cash flow and ensuring timely collection. This involves establishing credit policies, setting credit limits, monitoring payment terms, and implementing effective collection procedures. By closely monitoring trade accounts receivable, businesses can identify potential cash flow issues, mitigate credit risks, and maintain healthy financial stability.

  1. Non-Trade Accounts Receivable

Non-trade accounts receivable refers to amounts owed to the company that are not directly related to its core business operations. These receivables can arise from various sources, such as loans to employees, advances to suppliers, or reimbursements from insurance claims. Non-trade accounts receivable are typically less common than trade accounts receivable but still play a role in a company’s financial management.

Managing non-trade accounts receivable involves similar principles as trade accounts receivable, including establishing clear terms and conditions, monitoring repayment schedules, and implementing effective collection strategies. While non-trade accounts receivable may not be the primary focus, they should still be tracked and managed to maintain accurate financial records and maximise cash flow.

  1. Instalment Receivables

Instalment receivables refer to amounts owed by customers for goods or services that are paid in regular instalments over a specified period. This type of accounts receivable often arises in situations where customers are unable or unwilling to make full payments upfront. Examples include financing agreements for large purchases, such as automobiles, appliances, or equipment.

Managing instalment receivables requires careful monitoring of payment schedules, ensuring adherence to agreed-upon terms, and addressing any delinquencies promptly. It is essential to have proper documentation, including clear repayment terms, interest rates (if applicable), and consequences for default. Effective management of instalment receivables helps ensure steady cash flow and minimises the risk of non-payment.

  1. Impaired Receivables

Impaired receivables refer to accounts receivable that are deemed uncollectible or have a significant risk of non-payment. This category includes receivables from customers who have declared bankruptcy, are in financial distress, or have shown a consistent pattern of late or non-payment. Impaired receivables are typically written off as bad debt and removed from the company’s books.

Managing impaired receivables involves assessing the collectability of outstanding balances, pursuing collection efforts if possible, and accounting for the losses incurred. It is crucial to have appropriate provisions for bad debts to reflect the potential risks associated with impaired receivables accurately. Proper management of impaired receivables helps maintain the accuracy of financial statements and provides a realistic view of a company’s financial position.

Accounts Receivable Examples

Be we explore various accounts receivable examples across different sectors, providing insights into how businesses handle credit sales and manage their outstanding receivables.

  1. Manufacturing and Wholesale Industry

In the manufacturing and wholesale industry, accounts receivable examples include sales of raw materials, components, or finished products to retailers or other businesses. For instance, a clothing manufacturer may sell its products to retail stores on credit terms, allowing the stores to pay within a specified period, such as 30 days. The manufacturer records the sales as accounts receivable until the payment is received. Similarly, a wholesale distributor of electronics may extend credit to retailers purchasing a large number of products.

  1. Service-Based Businesses

Service-based businesses also have accounts receivable examples. For example, a consulting firm provides professional services to clients, such as marketing strategies or financial planning. The firm invoices the clients for the services rendered, and the outstanding amount becomes accounts receivable until it is paid. Similarly, a landscaping company may offer maintenance services to residential or commercial properties and bill its clients regularly.

  1. Retail Industry

In the retail industry, accounts receivable examples can be seen when businesses offer store credit or instalment payment plans to customers. This allows customers to purchase goods and pay for them over time. Retailers often partner with financial institutions to provide credit options to customers, such as store credit cards or financing programs. The outstanding balances on these credit accounts are recorded as accounts receivable until they are paid off.

  1. Healthcare Sector

Accounts receivable examples in the healthcare sector are prevalent due to the nature of medical services. Medical practitioners, hospitals, and clinics often provide services to patients and bill them later. This can include doctor visits, diagnostic tests, surgeries, or other medical treatments. The healthcare providers generate invoices for the services rendered and record the outstanding amounts as accounts receivable until they are settled, either by the patients or their insurance providers.

  1. Construction Industry

In the construction industry, accounts receivable examples arise from projects that involve a substantial investment of time, labour, and materials. Construction companies often work on contracts and bill their clients periodically as the project progresses. The outstanding amounts become accounts receivable until they are paid. This can include residential or commercial construction projects, renovations, or infrastructure development.

  1. Subscription-Based Businesses

Subscription-based businesses, such as software-as-a-service (SaaS) companies or media streaming platforms, rely on recurring revenue streams. These businesses charge their customers on a subscription basis, often monthly or annually. The subscription fees are recorded as accounts receivable until they are collected. Examples include subscription-based software platforms, online streaming services, or membership-based organisations.

What is Accounts Receivable Management?

Accounts receivable management encompasses the practices and procedures used to oversee and control the collection of payments owed by customers. It involves various activities, including invoicing, credit policies, payment terms, collection efforts, and the resolution of payment discrepancies. The primary objective of accounts receivable management is to ensure timely payment from customers while maintaining positive relationships and maximising cash flow.

Importance of Effective Accounts Receivable Management

Efficient accounts receivable management plays a vital role in the financial health of a company. Some key reasons why it is essential are:

Cash Flow Optimisation: Proper management of accounts receivable ensures a steady flow of cash into the business. Timely collection of payments enables companies to meet their financial obligations, such as paying suppliers, employees, and other operating expenses.

Credit Risk Mitigation: Accounts receivable management involves assessing the creditworthiness of customers and establishing appropriate credit limits. This helps minimise the risk of non-payment and potential bad debts, protecting the company’s financial stability.

Relationship Building: Effective accounts receivable management focuses on maintaining positive relationships with customers. Clear communication, efficient billing processes, and responsive customer service contribute to customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Financial Planning: Accurate and up-to-date accounts receivable records provide valuable information for financial planning and forecasting. It allows businesses to analyse their cash flow patterns, identify trends, and make informed decisions regarding investments, growth strategies, and debt management.

Key Practices in Accounts Receivable Management

To optimise accounts receivable management, businesses should implement several key practices:

Clear Credit Policies: Establishing clear credit policies helps set expectations for customers regarding payment terms, credit limits, and any penalties for late payments. This ensures transparency and consistency in credit transactions.

Accurate Invoicing: Prompt and accurate invoicing is crucial for accounts receivable management. Invoices should contain all necessary details, including the goods or services provided, payment terms, due dates, and any discounts or incentives available.

Efficient Collection Procedures: Implementing effective collection procedures helps streamline the payment collection process. This may involve sending reminders, making phone calls, or utilising automated collection systems. Consistent follow-up ensures timely payment and reduces the risk of delinquencies.

Regular Reconciliation: Regular reconciliation of accounts receivable balances with customer payments and outstanding invoices helps identify discrepancies and resolve any issues promptly. This ensures the accuracy of financial records and provides a clear picture of the company’s financial position.

Customer Relationship Management: Building strong relationships with customers is vital in accounts receivable management. Effective communication, responsiveness to inquiries or concerns, and personalised customer service contribute to customer satisfaction and timely payments.

Use of Technology: Leveraging technology solutions, such as accounting software or customer relationship management (CRM) systems, can streamline accounts receivable management processes. These tools automate tasks, provide real-time insights, and enhance efficiency.

What are Accounts receivable days (A/R days)?

Accounts receivable days, often abbreviated as A/R days, is a financial metric used to measure the average number of days it takes for a company to collect payments from its customers. It provides valuable insights into the efficiency of a company’s credit and collection processes, as well as the effectiveness of its accounts receivable management. Understanding accounts receivable days is crucial for businesses to optimise cash flow, manage credit risks, and make informed decisions regarding credit policies and collection strategies. In this article, we will delve into the concept of accounts receivable days, its calculation, significance, and strategies for improving this important financial metric.

Definition and Calculation of Accounts Receivable Days

Accounts receivable days is a financial ratio that measures the average number of days it takes for a company to collect its accounts receivable. It is calculated by dividing the accounts receivable balance by the average daily sales:

Accounts Receivable Days = (Accounts Receivable / Average Daily Sales) x 365

The accounts receivable balance represents the total amount of money owed by customers for goods or services provided on credit. Average daily sales can be calculated by dividing the total sales for a given period by the number of days in that period.

Significance of Accounts Receivable Days

Accounts receivable days are a key metric for assessing the effectiveness of a company’s credit and collection processes. It provides insights into the efficiency of cash conversion and the overall health of a company’s accounts receivable. Some key reasons why accounts receivable days are significant are:

Cash Flow Management: Monitoring accounts receivable days help businesses optimise cash flow by identifying potential bottlenecks in the collection process. It allows companies to forecast cash inflows and manage working capital effectively.

Credit Risk Assessment: A higher accounts receivable days ratio may indicate a higher credit risk, as it suggests longer payment cycles or potential collection issues. Monitoring this metric helps companies identify customers who may pose a higher credit risk and take appropriate measures to mitigate that risk.

Efficiency of Collection Processes: Accounts receivable days provide insights into the efficiency of a company’s collection efforts. A lower ratio indicates that payments are collected more quickly, indicating effective credit policies, proactive collection strategies, and strong customer relationships.

Benchmarking and Industry Comparison: Comparing accounts receivable days with industry benchmarks or competitors’ performance allows companies to assess their effectiveness in managing accounts receivable. This can help identify areas for improvement and implement best practices in credit and collection processes.

Strategies for Improving Accounts Receivable Days

Improving accounts receivable days requires implementing effective strategies and practices. Here are some strategies that businesses can employ:

Streamline Invoicing Processes: Ensure invoices are accurate, clear, and sent promptly to customers. Streamlining the invoicing process helps minimise payment delays and improves overall collection efficiency.

Set Clear Credit Policies: Establish clear credit policies, including credit limits, payment terms, and consequences for late payments. Clear policies help manage customer expectations and minimise credit risks.

Monitor Aging Receivables: Regularly monitor ageing receivables to identify overdue accounts and take appropriate collection actions. Implementing a systematic follow-up process for overdue payments can help expedite collections.

Offer Multiple Payment Options: Provide customers with various convenient payment options, such as credit cards, online payments, or automated payment systems. This enhances the ease of payment and encourages timely settlements.

Improve Communication: Maintain open lines of communication with customers to address any payment-related concerns or issues promptly. Promptly responding to customer inquiries and resolving disputes can lead to faster payments.

Implement Collection Strategies: Develop effective collection strategies, including reminder emails or letters, phone calls, and escalation procedures for persistent delinquencies. Clear collection procedures help encourage timely payments.

Implement Credit Screening: Conduct thorough credit checks and evaluations before extending credit to new customers. This helps minimise the risk of non-payment and identifies potential customers with a strong credit history.

Offer Incentives for Early Payment: Consider offering discounts or incentives for customers who make early or timely payments. This can motivate customers to settle their invoices sooner, reducing the accounts receivable days.

Utilise Automation and Technology: Leverage accounting software or customer relationship management (CRM) systems to automate and streamline accounts receivable processes. These tools can help track invoices, send reminders, and generate reports for better monitoring and analysis.

Strengthen Customer Relationships: Cultivate positive relationships with customers by providing excellent customer service and personalised experiences. Building strong relationships can enhance trust, resulting in prompt payment and reduced collection efforts.

What is Accounts Receivable Outsourcing

Accounts receivable refers to the outstanding payments that a company is owed by its customers for goods or services provided. It involves managing invoices, tracking payments, following up on overdue accounts, and maintaining accurate financial records. Accounts receivable outsourcing is the process of entrusting these tasks to a third-party service provider who specialises in accounts receivable management. The outsourcing provider takes over the responsibility of invoicing, collection, payment processing, and other related functions on behalf of the business.

Benefits of Accounts Receivable Outsourcing:

Expertise and Specialisation: Outsourcing accounts receivable allows businesses to tap into the expertise and specialised knowledge of outsourcing providers. These providers have dedicated teams with extensive experience in accounts receivable management, credit control, and collection strategies. They possess the necessary skills, tools, and technologies to effectively handle invoicing, payment processing, and debt collection, resulting in improved efficiency and higher collection rates.

Cost Savings: Outsourcing accounts receivable can lead to significant cost savings for businesses. By outsourcing, organisations can eliminate the need to hire and train additional staff, invest in expensive software and infrastructure, and bear the overhead costs associated with maintaining an in-house accounts receivable department. Outsourcing providers often operate on a pay-as-you-go model, allowing businesses to scale their accounts receivable operations as per their requirements, thereby reducing costs.

Improved Cash Flow: Effective accounts receivable management is crucial for maintaining a healthy cash flow. Outsourcing providers employ strategies and techniques to accelerate the payment cycle and reduce days of sales outstanding (DSO). They have systems in place to send timely reminders, follow up on overdue accounts, and negotiate payment terms with customers. By outsourcing these tasks, businesses can ensure a steady flow of cash, minimise late payments, and enhance their working capital.

Scalability and Flexibility: Outsourcing accounts receivable offers businesses the flexibility to scale their operations according to business demands. Whether it is handling fluctuations in transaction volumes, expanding into new markets, or managing seasonal peaks, outsourcing providers have the resources and capabilities to adapt to changing business needs. They can easily accommodate growth, accommodate different payment methods, and handle diverse customer segments, ensuring that businesses can focus on their core activities.

Focus on Core Competencies: Outsourcing accounts receivable allows businesses to redirect their resources and energy towards their core competencies. By entrusting the responsibility of accounts receivable management to a specialised provider, organisations can free up internal resources to focus on strategic initiatives, sales and marketing efforts, product development, and customer relationship management. This enables businesses to enhance their competitiveness, innovation, and overall performance in the market.

Considerations for Accounts Receivable Outsourcing

Data Security: Accounts receivable involves handling sensitive financial information, including customer payment details. When outsourcing, businesses must ensure that the outsourcing provider has robust data security measures in place to protect sensitive data from unauthorised access, breaches, and fraud. It is essential to conduct due diligence and choose a reputable provider with a proven track record in data security and compliance.

Communication and Collaboration: Effective communication and collaboration between the business and the outsourcing provider are crucial for the success of accounts receivable outsourcing. Clear lines of communication should be established, and regular updates and reports should be shared to ensure transparency and alignment of goals. The outsourcing provider should be responsive to inquiries and provide timely information regarding payment status, customer issues, and collection efforts. Collaborative efforts between the business and the outsourcing provider can help streamline processes, address challenges, and optimise the accounts receivable function.

Service Level Agreements (SLAs): When outsourcing accounts receivable, it is important to establish clear service level agreements (SLAs) that define the expectations, responsibilities, and performance metrics of the outsourcing provider. The SLAs should cover areas such as invoice processing time, collection targets, dispute resolution, reporting frequency, and customer service standards. These agreements provide a framework for measuring and monitoring the performance of the outsourcing provider and ensure that the desired outcomes are achieved.

Compliance and Regulatory Considerations: Businesses need to ensure that the outsourcing provider adheres to relevant compliance and regulatory requirements, especially when dealing with sensitive financial information. Depending on the industry and the geographical location of the business, there may be specific regulations such as data protection, privacy laws, and industry-specific compliance standards that need to be followed. It is essential to conduct thorough due diligence and choose an outsourcing provider that demonstrates a strong commitment to compliance and regulatory obligations.

Transition and Change Management: When transitioning to accounts receivable outsourcing, businesses need to plan and manage the change effectively. It may involve transferring data, training the outsourcing provider on specific business processes and systems, and aligning internal teams with the outsourcing provider. Change management strategies, including clear communication, training, and support, can help minimise disruptions and ensure a smooth transition to the outsourced accounts receivable function.


Accounts receivable outsourcing offers numerous benefits to businesses, including expertise, cost savings, improved cash flow, scalability, and the ability to focus on core competencies. By entrusting the management of accounts receivable to specialised providers, organisations can streamline their operations, enhance collection rates, and optimise their financial performance. However, businesses need to consider factors such as data security, communication, service level agreements, compliance, and change management when outsourcing accounts receivable. With careful planning, due diligence, and collaboration, businesses can leverage accounts receivable outsourcing to drive growth, efficiency, and financial success.

To learn how Quantante can improve your company’s Back Office operations contact us here.

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